19 items pinned
Immunological Outcomes of Antibody Binding to Glycans Shared between Microorganisms and Mammals.
Abstract: Glycans constitute basic cellular components of living organisms across biological kingdoms, and glycan-binding Abs participate in many cellular interactions during immune defense against pathogenic organisms. Glycan epitopes are expressed as carbohydrate-only entities or as oligomers or polymers on proteins and lipids. Such epitopes on glycoproteins may be formed by posttranslational modifications or neoepitopes resulting from metabolic-catabolic processes and can be altered during inflammation. Pathogenic organisms can display host-like glycans to evade the host immune response. However, Abs to glycans, shared between microorganisms and the host, exist naturally. These Abs are able to not only protect against infectious disease, but also are involved in host housekeeping functions and can suppress allergic disease. Despite the reactivity of these Abs to glycans shared between microorganisms and host, diverse tolerance-inducing mechanisms permit the B cell precursors of these Ab-secreting cells to exist within the normal B cell repertoire.
Pub.: 20 Nov '16, Pinned: 01 Jul '17
Pulmonary α-1,3-Glucan-Specific IgA-Secreting B Cells Suppress the Development of Cockroach Allergy.
Abstract: There is a higher incidence of allergic conditions among children living in industrialized countries than those in developing regions. One explanation for this is reduced neonatal exposure to microbes and the consequent lack of immune stimulation. Sensitivity to cockroach allergen is highly correlated with the development of severe asthma. In this study, we determined that an Ab to microbial α-1,3-glucan binds an Enterobacter species and cockroach allergen. Neonatal, but not adult, mice immunized with this α-1,3-glucan-bearing Enterobacter (MK7) are protected against cockroach allergy. Following exposure to cockroach allergen, α-1,3-glucan-specific IgA-secreting cells are present in the lungs of mice immunized with MK7 as neonates but not in the lungs of those immunized as adults. Mice that are unable to generate anti-α-1,3-glucan IgA Abs were immunized with MK7 as neonates and were no longer protected against cockroach allergy. Thus, neonatal, but not adult, exposure to α-1,3-glucan results in suppressed development of cockroach allergy via pulmonary α-1,3-glucan-specific IgA-secreting cells.
Pub.: 02 Sep '16, Pinned: 01 Jul '17
Neonatal exposure to pneumococcal phosphorylcholine modulates the development of house dust mite allergy during adult life.
Abstract: Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life.
Pub.: 10 May '15, Pinned: 01 Jul '17
Development of allergic immunity in early life.
Abstract: The growth and maturity of the peripheral immune system and subsequent development of pulmonary immunity in early life is dictated by host, environmental and microbial factors. Dysregulation during the critical window of immune development in the postnatal years results in disease which impacts on lifelong lung health. Asthma is a common disease in childhood and is often preceded by wheezing illnesses during the preschool years. However, the mechanisms underlying development of wheeze and how and why only some children progress to asthma is unknown. Human studies to date have generally focused on peripheral immune development, with little assessment of local tissue pathology in young children. Moreover, mechanisms underlying the interactions between inflammation and tissue repair at mucosal surfaces in early life remain unknown. Disappointingly, mechanistic studies in mice have predominantly used adult models. This review will consider the aspects of the neonatal immune system which might contribute to the development of early life wheezing disorders and asthma, and discuss the external environmental factors which may influence this process.
Pub.: 29 Jun '17, Pinned: 01 Jul '17
The Neonatal CD8+ T Cell Repertoire Rapidly Diversifies during Persistent Viral Infection.
Abstract: CMV is the most common congenital infection in the United States. The major target of congenital CMV is the brain, with clinical manifestations including mental retardation, vision impairment, and sensorineural hearing loss. Previous reports have shown that CD8(+) T cells are required to control viral replication and significant numbers of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells persist in the brain even after the initial infection has been cleared. However, the dynamics of CD8(+) T cells in the brain during latency remain largely undefined. In this report, we used TCR sequencing to track the development and maintenance of neonatal clonotypes in the brain and spleen of mice during chronic infection. Given the discontinuous nature of tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells, we hypothesized that neonatal TCR clonotypes would be locked in the brain and persist into adulthood. Surprisingly, we found that the Ag-specific T cell repertoire in neonatal-infected mice diversified during persistent infection in both the brain and spleen, while maintaining substantial similarity between the CD8(+) T cell populations in the brain and spleen in both early and late infection. However, despite the diversification of, and potential interchange between, the spleen and brain Ag-specific T cell repertoires, we observed that germline-encoded TCR clonotypes, characteristic of neonatal infection, persisted in the brain, albeit sometimes in low abundance. These results provide valuable insights into the evolution of CD8(+) T cell repertoires following neonatal CMV infection and thus have important implications for the development of therapeutic strategies to control CMV in early life.
Pub.: 15 Jan '16, Pinned: 30 Jun '17
A Wave of Regulatory T Cells into Neonatal Skin Mediates Tolerance to Commensal Microbes.
Abstract: The skin is a site of constant dialog between the immune system and commensal bacteria. However, the molecular mechanisms that allow us to tolerate the presence of skin commensals without eliciting destructive inflammation are unknown. Using a model system to study the antigen-specific response to S. epidermidis, we demonstrated that skin colonization during a defined period of neonatal life was required for establishing immune tolerance to commensal microbes. This crucial window was characterized by an abrupt influx of highly activated regulatory T (Treg) cells into neonatal skin. Selective inhibition of this Treg cell wave completely abrogated tolerance. Thus, the host-commensal relationship in the skin relied on a unique Treg cell population that mediated tolerance to bacterial antigens during a defined developmental window. This suggests that the cutaneous microbiome composition in neonatal life is crucial in shaping adaptive immune responses to commensals, and disrupting these interactions might have enduring health implications.
Pub.: 21 Nov '15, Pinned: 01 Jul '17
The Microbiome, Timing, and Barrier Function in the Context of Allergic Disease
Abstract: Allergic disease affects millions. Despite many advances in our understanding of the immune system in the past century, the physiologic underpinning for the existence of allergy remains largely mysterious. Food allergies, in particular, have increased dramatically in recent years, adding a new sense of urgency to unraveling this mystery. The concurrence of significant lifestyle changes in Western societies with increasing disease prevalence implies a causal link. Demographic variables that influence the composition and function of the commensal microbiota early in life seem to be most important. Identifying the evolutionary and physiologic foundations of allergic disease and defining what about our modern environment is responsible for its increased incidence will provide insights critical to the development of new approaches to prevention and treatment.
Pub.: 19 Apr '16, Pinned: 24 Jun '17
A novel model for IFN-γ-mediated autoinflammatory syndromes.
Abstract: Autoinflammatory disease and hyperinflammatory syndromes represent a growing number of diseases associated with inappropriately controlled inflammation in multiple organs. Systemic inflammation commonly results from dysregulated activation of innate immune cells, and therapeutic targeting of the IL-1β pathway has been used to ameliorate some of these diseases. Some hyperinflammatory syndromes, however, such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and the newly classified proteasome disability syndromes, are refractory to such treatments, suggesting that other factors or environmental stressors may be contributing. In comparing two cytokine reporter mouse strains, we identify IFN-γ as a mediator of systemic autoinflammatory disease. Chronically elevated levels of IFN-γ resulted in progressive multiorgan inflammation and two copies of the mutant allele resulted in increased mortality accompanied by myeloproliferative disease. Disease was alleviated by genetic deletion of T-bet. These studies raise the possibility that therapeutics targeting the IFN-γ pathway might be effective in hyperinflammatory conditions refractory to IL-1β-targeted therapies.
Pub.: 01 Feb '15, Pinned: 01 Jul '17
Divergent expression patterns of IL-4 and IL-13 define unique functions in allergic immunity.
Abstract: Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are critical for responses to parasitic helminthes. We used genetically engineered reporter mice to assess the temporal and spatial production of these cytokines in vivo. In lymph nodes, IL-4, but not IL-13, was made by follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells). In contrast, tissue type 2 helper T cells (T(H)2 cells) produced both cytokines. There was also divergent production of IL-4 and IL-13 among cells of the innate immune system, whereby basophils produced IL-4, whereas innate helper type 2 cells (Ih2 cells) produced IL-13. IL-13 production by T(H)2 and Ih2 cells was dependent on the transcription factor GATA-3, which was present in large amounts in these cells, and in contrast to the small amount of GATA-3 in T(FH) cells and basophils. The distinct localization and cellular expression of IL-4 and IL-13 explains their unique roles during allergic immunity.
Pub.: 06 Dec '11, Pinned: 01 Jul '17
A two-step process for cytokine production revealed by IL-4 dual-reporter mice.
Abstract: To monitor IL-4 expression at the single-cell level, we generated mice with insertions of different reporter genes into both copies of the Il4 gene that permitted the simultaneous analysis of IL-4 transcripts via GFP and IL-4 protein secretion by use of huCD2. Innate and adaptive cells competent for IL-4 production were marked by GFP, while cells that presently or recently secreted IL-4 additionally displayed huCD2. After challenge with the strictly enteric helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, GFP-positive innate and adaptive cells disseminated widely, but IL-4 secretion was predominantly mediated by CD4+ T cells in the intestines and draining lymphoid organs. IL-4-competent cells persisted in cured animals, and memory responses reflected rapid cytokine production at the site of rechallenge. These data reveal a two-step process for cytokine production: the first generating poised cells that disseminate systemically and the second inducing the rapid production of the cytokine in response to local stimulation.
Pub.: 18 Oct '05, Pinned: 01 Jul '17
Developmental regulation of Foxp3 expression during ontogeny.
Abstract: Thymectomy of neonatal mice can result in the development of autoimmune pathology. It has been proposed that thymic output of regulatory T (T reg) cells is delayed during ontogeny and that the development of autoimmune disease in neonatally thymectomized mice is caused by the escape of self-reactive T cells before thymectomy without accompanying T reg cells. However, the kinetics of T reg cell production within the thymus during ontogeny has not been assessed. We demonstrate that the development of Foxp3-expressing T reg cells is substantially delayed relative to nonregulatory thymocytes during ontogeny. Based on our data, we speculate that induction of Foxp3 in developing thymocytes and, thus, commitment to the T reg cell lineage is facilitated by a signal largely associated with the thymic medulla.
Pub.: 06 Oct '05, Pinned: 01 Jul '17
"Default" generation of neonatal regulatory T cells.
Abstract: CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells were shown to control all aspects of immune responses. How these Treg cells develop is not fully defined, especially in neonates during development of the immune system. We studied the induction of Treg cells from neonatal T cells with various TCR stimulatory conditions, because TCR stimulation is required for Treg cell generation. Independent of the types of TCR stimulus and without the addition of exogenous TGF-beta, up to 70% of neonatal CD4(+)Foxp3(-) T cells became CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells, whereas generally <10% of adult CD4(+)Foxp3(-) T cells became CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells under the same conditions. These neonatal Treg cells exert suppressive function and display relatively stable Foxp3 expression. Importantly, this ability of Treg cell generation gradually diminishes within 2 wk of birth. Consistent with in vitro findings, the in vivo i.p. injection of anti-CD3 mAb to stimulate T cells also resulted in a >3-fold increase in Treg cells in neonates but not in adults. Furthermore, neonatal or adult Foxp3(-) T cells were adoptively transferred into Rag1(-/-) mice. Twelve days later, the frequency of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells converted from neonatal cells was 6-fold higher than that converted from adult cells. Taken together, neonatal CD4(+) T cells have an intrinsic "default" mechanism to become Treg cells in response to TCR stimulations. This finding provides intriguing implications about neonatal immunity, Treg cell generation, and tolerance establishment early in life.
Pub.: 26 May '10, Pinned: 01 Jul '17
Early-life compartmentalization of human T cell differentiation and regulatory function in mucosal and lymphoid tissues.
Abstract: It is unclear how the immune response in early life becomes appropriately stimulated to provide protection while also avoiding excessive activation as a result of diverse new antigens. T cells are integral to adaptive immunity; mouse studies indicate that tissue localization of T cell subsets is important for both protective immunity and immunoregulation. In humans, however, the early development and function of T cells in tissues remain unexplored. We present here an analysis of lymphoid and mucosal tissue T cells derived from pediatric organ donors in the first two years of life, as compared to adult organ donors, revealing early compartmentalization of T cell differentiation and regulation. Whereas adult tissues contain a predominance of memory T cells, in pediatric blood and tissues the main subset consists of naive recent thymic emigrants, with effector memory T cells (T(EM)) found only in the lungs and small intestine. Additionally, regulatory T (T(reg)) cells comprise a high proportion (30-40%) of CD4(+) T cells in pediatric tissues but are present at much lower frequencies (1-10%) in adult tissues. Pediatric tissue T(reg) cells suppress endogenous T cell activation, and early T cell functionality is confined to the mucosal sites that have the lowest T(reg):T(EM) cell ratios, which suggests control in situ of immune responses in early life.
Pub.: 15 Dec '15, Pinned: 30 Jun '17
Dendritic Cells Display Subset and Tissue-Specific Maturation Dynamics over Human Life.
Abstract: Maturation and migration to lymph nodes (LNs) constitutes a central paradigm in conventional dendritic cell (cDC) biology but remains poorly defined in humans. Using our organ donor tissue resource, we analyzed cDC subset distribution, maturation, and migration in mucosal tissues (lungs, intestines), associated lymph nodes (LNs), and other lymphoid sites from 78 individuals ranging from less than 1 year to 93 years of age. The distribution of cDC1 (CD141(hi)CD13(hi)) and cDC2 (Sirp-α(+)CD1c(+)) subsets was a function of tissue site and was conserved between donors. We identified cDC2 as the major mature (HLA-DR(hi)) subset in LNs with the highest frequency in lung-draining LNs. Mature cDC2 in mucosal-draining LNs expressed tissue-specific markers derived from the paired mucosal site, reflecting their tissue-migratory origin. These distribution and maturation patterns were largely maintained throughout life, with site-specific variations. Our findings provide evidence for localized DC tissue surveillance and reveal a lifelong division of labor between DC subsets, with cDC2 functioning as guardians of the mucosa.
Pub.: 23 Mar '17, Pinned: 30 Jun '17
Invariant natural killer T cells recognize glycolipids from pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria.
Abstract: Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) recognize glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d. These cells express an evolutionarily conserved, invariant T cell antigen receptor (TCR), but the forces that drive TCR conservation have remained uncertain. Here we show that NKT cells recognized diacylglycerol-containing glycolipids from Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, and group B Streptococcus, which causes neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Furthermore, CD1d-dependent responses by NKT cells were required for activation and host protection. The glycolipid response was dependent on vaccenic acid, which is present in low concentrations in mammalian cells. Our results show how microbial lipids position the sugar for recognition by the invariant TCR and, most notably, extend the range of microbes recognized by this conserved TCR to several clinically important bacteria.
Pub.: 06 Sep '11, Pinned: 24 Jun '17
The earliest thymic T cell progenitors sustain B cell and myeloid lineage potential.
Abstract: The stepwise commitment from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow to T lymphocyte-restricted progenitors in the thymus represents a paradigm for understanding the requirement for distinct extrinsic cues during different stages of lineage restriction from multipotent to lineage-restricted progenitors. However, the commitment stage at which progenitors migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus remains unclear. Here we provide functional and molecular evidence at the single-cell level that the earliest progenitors in the neonatal thymus had combined granulocyte-monocyte, T lymphocyte and B lymphocyte lineage potential but not megakaryocyte-erythroid lineage potential. These potentials were identical to those of candidate thymus-seeding progenitors in the bone marrow, which were closely related at the molecular level. Our findings establish the distinct lineage-restriction stage at which the T cell lineage-commitment process transits from the bone marrow to the remote thymus.
Pub.: 22 Feb '12, Pinned: 24 Jun '17
S100-alarmin-induced innate immune programming protects newborn infants from sepsis.
Abstract: The high risk of neonatal death from sepsis is thought to result from impaired responses by innate immune cells; however, the clinical observation of hyperinflammatory courses of neonatal sepsis contradicts this concept. Using transcriptomic, epigenetic and immunological approaches, we demonstrated that high amounts of the perinatal alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 specifically altered MyD88-dependent proinflammatory gene programs. S100 programming prevented hyperinflammatory responses without impairing pathogen defense. TRIF-adaptor-dependent regulatory genes remained unaffected by perinatal S100 programming and responded strongly to lipopolysaccharide, but were barely expressed. Steady-state expression of TRIF-dependent genes increased only gradually during the first year of life in human neonates, shifting immune regulation toward the adult phenotype. Disruption of this critical sequence of transient alarmin programming and subsequent reprogramming of regulatory pathways increased the risk of hyperinflammation and sepsis. Collectively these data suggest that neonates are characterized by a selective, transient microbial unresponsiveness that prevents harmful hyperinflammation in the delicate neonate while allowing for sufficient immunological protection.
Pub.: 02 May '17, Pinned: 15 Jun '17
The transcription factor Runx3 guards cytotoxic CD8(+) effector T cells against deviation towards follicular helper T cell lineage.
Abstract: Activated CD8(+) T cells differentiate into cytotoxic effector (TEFF) cells that eliminate target cells. How TEFF cell identity is established and maintained is not fully understood. We found that Runx3 deficiency limited clonal expansion and impaired upregulation of cytotoxic molecules in TEFF cells. Runx3-deficient CD8(+) TEFF cells aberrantly upregulated genes characteristic of follicular helper T (TFH) cell lineage, including Bcl6, Tcf7 and Cxcr5. Mechanistically, the Runx3-CBFβ transcription factor complex deployed H3K27me3 to Bcl6 and Tcf7 genes to suppress the TFH program. Ablating Tcf7 in Runx3-deficient CD8(+) TEFF cells prevented the upregulation of TFH genes and ameliorated their defective induction of cytotoxic genes. As such, Runx3-mediated Tcf7 repression coordinately enforced acquisition of cytotoxic functions and protected the cytotoxic lineage integrity by preventing TFH-lineage deviation.
Pub.: 13 Jun '17, Pinned: 15 Jun '17