Time-resolved photometry is an important new probe of the physics of
condensate clouds in extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. Extreme adaptive
optics systems can directly image planets, but precise brightness measurements
are challenging. We present VLT/SPHERE high-contrast, time-resolved broad
H-band near-infrared photometry for four exoplanets in the HR 8799 system,
sampling changes from night to night over five nights with relatively short
integrations. The photospheres of these four planets are often modeled by
patchy clouds and may show large-amplitude rotational brightness modulations.
Our observations provide high-quality images of the system. We present a
detailed performance analysis of different data analysis approaches to
accurately measure the relative brightnesses of the four exoplanets. We explore
the information in satellite spots and demonstrate their use as a proxy for
image quality. While the brightness variations of the satellite spots are
strongly correlated, we also identify a second-order anti-correlation pattern
between the different spots. Our study finds that PCA-based KLIP reduction with
satellite spot-modulated artificial planet-injection based photometry (SMAP)
leads to a significant (~3x) gain in photometric accuracy over standard
aperture-based photometry and reaches 0.1 mag per point accuracy for our
dataset, the signal-to-noise of which is limited by small field rotation.
Relative planet-to-planet photometry can be compared be- tween nights, enabling
observations spanning multiple nights to probe variability. Recent high-quality
relative H-band photometry of the b-c planet pair agree to about 1%.