The safety-critical rotating parts of aircraft engines are mainly designed using experimental material data, based on standard specimens and procedures, while few data are available on the effect of manufacturing anomalies on fatigue life. In this context, the paper investigates the effects of different machining parameters on the high-temperature fatigue resistance of Inconel 718 superalloy specimens, cut from engine disk forgings, machined by turning on a vertical lathe. An unconventional specimen was designed in order to have the machining marks aligned with the fatigue loading axis, so to reproduce the hoop stresses in engine disks. For the test campaign, three machining parameters were chosen (depth of cut, cutting speed and insert wear) that typically may generate non-geometrical anomalies. A correlation has been found between the machining parameters, the residual stresses, the surface roughness, and the distorted and amorphous layer thicknesses. Correlations of such data with fatigue life are also presented and discussed.