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Modification of the gut microbiome to combat neurodegeneration.

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiome was extensively researched for its biological variety and its potential role in propagating diseases outside of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Recently, a lot of effort was focused on comprehending the gut-brain axis and the bizarre communication between the GI system and the nervous system. Ample amount of studies being carried out also revealed the involvement of the gut microbiome in enhancing the degree of many neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. It was widely observed that there were distinct microbiome profiles and dysbiosis within patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Various approaches to re-establish the balance of the gut microbiome, from antibiotic therapy, fecal microbiota transplant, or ingestion of psychobiotics, are discussed within this review within the specific context of combating neurodegenerative diseases. Present studies and clinical trials indicate that although there is an immense potential of gut microbiome modification to be preventive or therapeutic, there are still many intercalated components of the gut-brain axis at play and thus, more research needs to be carried out to delineate microbiome factors that may potentially alleviate symptoms of neurodegeneration.