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Long non-coding RNA CASC2 in human cancer.

ABSTRACT

Long non-coding RNAs cover large part of the non-coding information of the human DNA, which represents more than 90% of the whole genome. They constitute a wide and complex group of molecules with more than 200 nucleotides, which generally lack an open reading frame, and are involved in various ways in the pathophysiology of cancer. Their roles in the regulation of gene expression, imprinting, transcription, and post-translational processing have been described in several types of cancer. CASC2 was discovered in 2004 in patients with endometrial carcinoma as a potential tumor suppressor. Since then, additional studies in other types of neoplasia have been carried out, and both mechanisms and interactions of CASC2 in cancer have been better elucidated. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of CASC2 in the genesis, progression, and clinical management of human cancer.