HIV-1 infection of human macrophages directly induces viperin which inhibits viral production.
Research paper by
Najla N Nasr, Susan S Maddocks, Stuart G SG Turville, Andrew N AN Harman, Natalie N Woolger, Karla J KJ Helbig, John J Wilkinson, Chris R CR Bye, Thomas K TK Wright, Dharshini D Rambukwelle, Heather H Donaghy, Michael R MR Beard, Anthony L AL Cunningham
Macrophages are key target cells for HIV-1. HIV-1(BaL) induced a subset of interferon-stimulated genes in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), which differed from that in monocyte-derived dendritic cells and CD4 T cells, without inducing any interferons. Inhibition of type I interferon induction was mediated by HIV-1 inhibition of interferon-regulated factor (IRF3) nuclear translocation. In MDMs, viperin was the most up-regulated interferon-stimulated genes, and it significantly inhibited HIV-1 production. HIV-1 infection disrupted lipid rafts via viperin induction and redistributed viperin to CD81 compartments, the site of HIV-1 egress by budding in MDMs. Exogenous farnesol, which enhances membrane protein prenylation, reversed viperin-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 production. Mutagenesis analysis in transfected cell lines showed that the internal S-adenosyl methionine domains of viperin were essential for its antiviral activity. Thus viperin may contribute to persistent noncytopathic HIV-1 infection of macrophages and possibly to biologic differences with HIV-1-infected T cells.