Pre-diabetes and diabetes occur secondary to a constellation of pathophysiological abnormalities that culminate in insulin resistance, which results in reduced cellular glucose uptake and increased glucose production. Although pre-diabetes and diabetes have a strong genetic basis, they are largely environmentally driven through lifestyle factors. Traditional lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity do not fully explain the dramatic rise in the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Sleep has emerged as an additional lifestyle behavior, important for metabolic health and energy homeostasis. In this article, we review the current evidence surrounding the sleep-diabetes association.