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Text-Independent Speaker Verification for Real Fast-Varying Noisy Environments

ABSTRACT

Investigating Speaker Verification in real-world noisy environments, a novel feature extraction process suitable for suppression of time-varying noise is compared with a fine-tuned spectral subtraction method. The proposed feature extraction process is based on approximating the clean speech and the noise spectral magnitude with a mixture of Gaussian probability density functions (pdfs) by using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm (EM). Subsequently, the Bayesian inference framework is applied to the degraded spectral coefficients, and by employing Minimum Mean Square Error Estimation (MMSE), a closed form solution for the spectral magnitude estimation task is derived. The estimated spectral magnitude finally is incorporated into the Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) front-end of a baseline text-independent speaker verification system, based on Probabilistic Neural Networks, which participated successfully in the 2002 NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology of USA) Speaker Recognition Evaluation. A comparative study of the proposed technique for real-world noise types demonstrates a significant performance gain compared to the baseline speech features and to the spectral subtraction enhancement method. Improvements of the absolute speaker verification performance with more than 27% for 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), compared to the MFCCs, and with more than 13% for −5 dB SNR, compared to the spectral subtraction version, were obtained in the case of a passing-by aircraft scenario.