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Using particle swarm optimization to search for locally $D$-optimal designs for mixed factor experiments with binary response

ABSTRACT

Identifying optimal designs for generalized linear models with a binary response can be a challenging task, especially when there are both continuous and discrete independent factors in the model. Theoretical results rarely exist for such models, and the handful that do exist come with restrictive assumptions. This paper investigates the use of particle swarm optimization (PSO) to search for locally $D$-optimal designs for generalized linear models with discrete and continuous factors and a binary outcome and demonstrates that PSO can be an effective method. We provide two real applications using PSO to identify designs for experiments with mixed factors: one to redesign an odor removal study and the second to find an optimal design for an electrostatic discharge study. In both cases we show that the $D$-efficiencies of the designs found by PSO are much better than the implemented designs. In addition, we show PSO can efficiently find $D$-optimal designs on a prototype or an irregularly shaped design space, provide insights on the existence of minimally supported optimal designs, and evaluate sensitivity of the $D$-optimal design to mis-specifications in the link function.