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Maternal-fetal hepatic and placental metabolome profiles are associated with reduced fetal growth in a rat model of maternal obesity

ABSTRACT

Maternal obesity is associated with a range of pregnancy complications, including fetal growth restriction (FGR), whereby a fetus fails to reach its genetically determined growth. Placental insufficiency and reduced nutrient transport play a role in the onset of FGR.Metabolomic profiling was used to reveal altered maternal and fetal metabolic pathways in a model of diet induced obesity during pregnancy, leading to reduced fetal growth.We examined the metabolome of maternal and fetal livers, and placenta following a high fat and salt intake. Sprague–Dawley rats were assigned to (a) control diet (CD; 1 % salt, 10 % kcal from fat), (b) high salt diet (SD; 4 % salt, 10 % kcal from fat), (c) high fat diet (HF; 1 % salt, 45 % kcal from fat) or (d) high-fat high-salt diet (HFSD; 4 % salt, 45 % kcal from fat) 21 days prior to pregnancy and during gestation. Metabolites from maternal and fetal livers, and placenta were identified using gas and liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry.Maternal HF intake resulted in reduced fetal weight. Altered metabolite profiles were observed in the HF maternal and fetal liver, and placenta. Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism was significantly altered in maternal and fetal liver by maternal fat intake.Excess of linoleic and α-linoleic acid (essential fatty acids) may be detrimental during placentation and associated with a reduction in fetal weight. Additionally, maternal, placental and fetal response to increased fat consumption seems likely to involve palmitoleic acid utilization as an adaptive response during maternal obesity.