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Dengue serotype circulation in natural populations of Aedes aegypti.


Ae. aegypti is the main vector of dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. The transmission dynamics of these arboviruses, especially the arboviral circulation in the mosquito population during low and high transmission seasons in endemic areas are still poorly understood. We conducted an entomological survey to determine dengue infection rates in Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These collections were performed in 2012-2013 during a Rio de Janeiro epidemic, just before the introduction and spread of ZIKV and CHIKV in the city. MosquiTrap(©) and BG-Sentinel traps were installed in three fixed and seven itinerant neighborhoods each month over ten months. Mosquitoes were in supernatants pools tested and individually confirmed for DENV infection using RT-PCR. A total of 3,053 Aedes mosquitos were captured and Ae. aegypti was much more frequent (92.9%) than Ae. albopictus (6.8%). Ae. aegypti females accounted for 71.8% of captured mosquitoes by MosquitTrap(©) and were the only species found naturally infected with DENV (infection rate=0.81%). Only one Ae. aegypti male, collected by BG-sentinel, was also tested positive for DENV. The peak of DENV-positive mosquitoes coincided the season of the highest incidence of human cases. The most common serotypes detected in mosquitoes were DENV-3 (24%) and DENV-1 (24%), followed by DENV-4 (20%), DENV-2 (8%) and DENV-1 plus DENV4 (4%), while 95% of laboratory-confirmed human infections in the period were due to DENV-4. These contrasting results suggest silent maintenance of DENV serotypes during the epidemics, reinforcing the importance of entomological and viral surveillance in endemic areas.