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Proteomics to study macrophage response to viral infection.


Viral infections are a major burden to human and animal health. Immune response against viruses consists of innate and adaptive immunity which are both critical for the eradication of the viral infection. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Proper innate immune response is required for the activation of adaptive, humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Macrophages are innate immune cells which have a central role in detecting viral infections including influenza A and human immunodeficiency viruses. Macrophages and other host cells respond to viral infection by modulating their protein expression levels, proteins' posttranslational modifications, as well as proteins' intracellular localization and secretion. Therefore the detailed characterization how viruses dynamically manipulate host proteome is needed for understanding the molecular mechanisms of viral infection. It is critical to identify cellular host factors which are exploited by different viruses, and which are less prone for mutations and could serve as potential targets for novel antiviral compounds. Here, we review how proteomics studies have enhanced our understanding of macrophage response to viral infection with special focus on Influenza A and Human immunodeficiency viruses, and virus infections of swine.Influenza A viruses (IAVs) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) infect annually millions of people worldwide and they form a severe threat to human health. Both IAVs and HIV-1 can efficiently antagonize host response and develop drug-resistant variants. Most current antiviral drugs are directed against viral proteins, and there is a constant need to develop new next-generation drugs targeting host proteins that are essential for viral replication. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are economically important swine pathogens. Both PRRSV and PCV2 cause severe respiratory tract illnesses in swine. IAVs, HIV-1, and swine viruses infect macrophages activating antiviral response against these viruses. Macrophages also have a central role in the replication and spread of these viruses. However, macrophage response to these viruses is incompletely understood. Current proteomics methods can provide a global view of host-response to viral infection which is needed for in-depth understanding the molecular mechanisms of viral infection. Here we review the current proteomics studies on macrophage response to viral infection and provide insight into the global host proteome changes upon viral infection.