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The effects of multi-component weight management interventions on weight loss in adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

ABSTRACT

Adults with intellectual disabilities have been shown to experience higher rates of obesity in comparison to the general population.To examine the effectiveness of randomised controlled trials of multi-component weight management interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities and overweight/obesity.A systematic search of six electronic databases was conducted from database inception to January 2016. Risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Behavioural change techniques were defined by coding against the Coventry Aberdeen LOndon REfined (CALO-RE) taxonomy. Meta-analyses were conducted as Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) between intervention and control/comparator intervention.Six randomised controlled trials were included. The interventions did not adhere to clinical recommendations [the inclusion of an energy deficit diet (EDD), physical activity, and behaviour change techniques]. Meta-analysis revealed that current multi-component weight management interventions are not more effective than no treatment (WMD: -0.38kg; 95% CI -1.34kg to 0.58kg; p=0.44).There is a paucity of randomised controlled trials of multi-component weight management interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities and overweight/obesity. Current interventions, based on a health education approach are ineffective. Future long-term interventions that include an EDD and adhere to clinical recommendations on the management of obesity are warranted.