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Decellularized Adipose Tissue Scaffolds for Soft Tissue Regeneration and Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cell Delivery.

ABSTRACT

Surgically discarded adipose tissue is not only an abundant source of multipotent adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) but can also be decellularized to obtain a biomimetic microenvironment for tissue engineering applications. The decellularization methods involve processing excised fat through a series of chemical, mechanical, and enzymatic treatment stages designed to extract cells, cellular components, and lipid from the tissues. This process yields a complex 3D bioscaffold enriched in collagens that mimics the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the native extracellular matrix (ECM). For ASC culture and delivery, decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) provides a cell-supportive platform that is conducive to adipogenesis. While DAT can be applied in its intact form as an off-the-shelf adipogenic matrix, it can also be used as an ECM source for the fabrication of an array of other scaffold formats including adipose ECM-derived microcarriers and porous foams. In this chapter, we describe the methods developed in our lab to decellularize human adipose tissue and to further process it into a variety of scaffolding materials for a range of applications in soft tissue regeneration, wound healing, and cell culture.