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Borago officinalis L. flower: a comprehensive study on bioactive compounds and its health-promoting properties

ABSTRACT

The herbal plant Borago officinalis L. flower were analysed for its bioactive compounds and antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities using different solvent polarities (methanol, ethanol and water). The RP-HPLC analyses of the methanolic extract confirmed the presence of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol, salicylic acid, caffeic acid), flavonoids (myricetin, rutin) and isoflavonoid (daidzein). Besides, the major individual fatty acids of methanolic extract were α-linolenic, stearidonic, palmitic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. The methanolic extract possessed the highest antioxidant properties as compared to the ethanolic and water extracts. The flower methanolic, ethanolic and water extracts showed high, moderate and weak antibacterial activities against common human and foodborne pathogenic bacteria, respectively. Furthermore, the flower extracts showed weak anti-inflammatory in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and low anticancer properties against human hepatic, prostate and colon cancer cells. This high-value flower could be considered as a source of putative antioxidant and antibacterial compounds to improve the human health and to be used as biopreservative in food and cosmetic industries.