A three-crop repeated phytoextraction experiment was conducted using four soils (S1-S4) highly polluted with cadmium (Cd) and two enhanced phytoextraction pot experiments using the most polluted soil (S4) to investigate the feasibility of Cd removal from highly polluted soils using the Cd/zinc (Zn)-hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola. Shoot biomass showed no significant difference during the repeated phytoextraction experiment on the four test soils and shoot Cd content showed a decreasing trend with the three consecutive crops in soils S1, S2, and S3 but not in soil S4. The Cd removal rates in soils S1, S2, S3, and S4 were 84.5, 81.6, 45.3, and 32.4%, respectively. Rice straw application increased Cd extraction efficiency by 42.6% but the addition of ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid, biochar or nitrogen had no effect on Cd remediation. Shoot Cd content increased significantly (1.57 and 1.71 times, respectively) at low (S-1) and high (S-2) sulfur addition rates. Soil extractable-Cd in S-1 after the experiment showed no significant difference from the control but was 2.43 times higher in S-2 than in the control. These results indicate that S. plumbizincicola shows good prospects for the phytoextraction of Cd from highly polluted soils and that the process can be enhanced by adding straw and/or sulfur to the soil.