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Medical and Psychiatric Effects of Long-Term Dependence on High Dose of tramadol.

ABSTRACT

Tramadol dependence has been studied recently after large-scale exposure. Although tramadol dependence has increased rapidly in Egypt since 2004, no studies have evaluated the effect of high dose long-term tramadol dependence.To address the chronic sequel of tramadol dependence over at least 5 years duration with a large dose (more than 675 mg/day, three tablets or more, each tablet of 225 mg). The study was aimed to check the physical and psychiatric status during tramadol dependence and 3 months after complete treatment.The present study was applied on 79 patients with single tramadol-dependence dose of 675 mg or more for 5 years or more. We examined the physical and psychological impact of tramadol abuse before and after 3 months of stoppage of the drug.The blood chemistry was nearly within normal parameters, although slight nonsignificant rise in liver enzymes was reported in some cases. Patients during tramadol dependence period were angry, hostile, and aggressive. On the other hand, after treatment the main problem observed was the significant increase in comorbid anxiety, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but no increase was found in psychotic symptoms. Tramadol-dependence dose was more important than duration of use in psychiatric illness.Tramadol dependence on high dose could be physically safe to some limit, but psychiatrically it has many side effects.