Capsinoids-nonpungent capsaicin analogs-are known to activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure (EE) in small rodents. BAT activity can be assessed by [¹⁸F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in humans.The aims of the current study were to examine the acute effects of capsinoid ingestion on EE and to analyze its relation to BAT activity in humans.Eighteen healthy men aged 20-32 y underwent FDG-PET after 2 h of cold exposure (19°C) while wearing light clothing. Whole-body EE and skin temperature, after oral ingestion of capsinoids (9 mg), were measured for 2 h under warm conditions (27°C) in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design.When exposed to cold, 10 subjects showed marked FDG uptake into adipose tissue of the supraclavicular and paraspinal regions (BAT-positive group), whereas the remaining 8 subjects (BAT-negative group) showed no detectable uptake. Under warm conditions (27°C), the mean (±SEM) resting EE was 6114 ± 226 kJ/d in the BAT-positive group and 6307 ± 156 kJ/d in the BAT-negative group (NS). EE increased by 15.2 ± 2.6 kJ/h in 1 h in the BAT-positive group and by 1.7 ± 3.8 kJ/h in the BAT-negative group after oral ingestion of capsinoids (P < 0.01). Placebo ingestion produced no significant change in either group. Neither capsinoids nor placebo changed the skin temperature in various regions, including regions close to BAT deposits.Capsinoid ingestion increases EE through the activation of BAT in humans. This trial was registered at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ as UMIN 000006073.