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Buildings-to-Grid Integration Framework


This paper puts forth a mathematical framework for Buildings-to-Grid (BtG) integration in smart cities. The framework explicitly couples power grid and building's control actions and operational decisions, and can be utilized by buildings and power grids operators to simultaneously optimize their performance. High-level dynamics of building clusters and building-integrated power networks with algebraic equations are presented--both operating at different time-scales. A model predictive control (MPC)-based algorithm that formulates the BtG integration and accounts for the time-scale discrepancy is developed. The formulation captures dynamic and algebraic power flow constraints of power networks and is shown to be numerically advantageous, as a high-fidelity discretization is used. Case studies demonstrate building energy savings and significant frequency regulation, while these findings carry over in network simulations with nonlinear power flows and mismatch in load predictions, weather forecasts, and building model parameters.