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Failures of engineering components due to environmentally assisted cracking


Examples of failures of engineering components by stress-corrosion cracking, corrosion-fatigue, hydrogen embrittlement, liquid-metal embrittlement, and solid-metal embrittlement are described. Causes of failure include inappropriate materials selection or heat treatment, poor design, and high residual stresses. The examples illustrate how fractographic characteristics, analysis of films and deposits on fracture surfaces, and other factors help in diagnosing the modes and causes of failures, thereby enabling the appropriate remedial measures to be taken.