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Rab32 subfamily small GTPases: pleiotropic Rabs in endosomal trafficking.

ABSTRACT

Rab small GTPases, well-known regulators of membrane trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, comprise approximately 60 different members in mammals. During the past decade, our understanding of the functions of mammalian Rab32 subfamily members (Rab32 and Rab38) have deepened, especially on the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles, such as melanosomes, and the protection mechanisms against several pathogenic microbial infections. Endosome-mediated membrane trafficking by Rab32 subfamily members plays pivotal roles in these events. In this review, we provide an overview of the regulatory mechanisms of mammalian Rab32-family members in endosomal trafficking, especially focusing on their GEF, GAP, and effector molecules, and describe the latest findings on physiological and pathological functions regulated by these molecules.