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Graphene nanoparticles as osteoinductive and osteoconductive platform for stem cell and bone regeneration.


The potential of graphene-based nanoparticles (GNPs) has recently gained significant attention in biomedicine, especially in tissue engineering. In this study, we investigated the osteoinductive and osteoconductive effects of low oxygen content graphene (LOG) nanoparticles on adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and in vivo. We showed that adult goat MSCs were viable in the presence of 0.1 mg/mL LOG and retained their stem cell properties. A 3D scaffold made from agarose was used to encapsulate MSCs and LOG nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the cell morphology and adherence of MSCs to LOG in the 3D form. The LOG and MSCs in the 3D scaffold were xenogenically implanted into a rat unicortical tibial bone defect. The combination of MSCs and LOG nanoparticles resulted in improved active bone formation and increased mineralization. These results strengthen the applicability of LOG nanoparticles as an adjunct treatment for bone tissue engineering.