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Self-Folded Three-Dimensional Graphene with Tunable Shape and Conductivity.

ABSTRACT

Three-dimensional (3D) graphene architectures are of great interest as regards applications in flexible electronics and bio-interfaces. In this study, we demonstrate the facile formation of predetermined 3D polymeric microstructures simply by transferring monolayer graphene. The graphene adheres to the surface of polymeric films via noncovalent π-π stacking bonding and induces a sloped internal strain, leading to the self-rolling of 3D microscale architectures. Micro-patterns and varied thicknesses of the 2D films prior to the self-rolling allows for control over the resulting 3D geometries. The strain then present on the hexagonal unit cell of the graphene produces a non-linear electrical conductivity across the device. The driving force behind the self-folding process arises from the reconfiguration of the molecules within the crystalline materials. We believe that this effective and versatile way of realizing a 3D graphene structure is potentially applicable to alternative 2D layered materials as well as other flexible polymeric templates.