Bridge foundations are subjected to local scour and in many occasions, local scour causes failure of bridges. The designer must seek ways to guide and control the process so as to minimize the risk of failure. Guidance comes both from controlled studies in laboratories and from field experiences, both the successes and particularly the failures. Despite much study, the principles of analysis of scouring are not well established and the results of various investigations often show different trends. Therefore, proper knowledge regarding local scour around bridge foundations is of utmost importance. The main objective of this research is to review the literature on local scour around bridge pier (both theoretical and experimental investigations) including scour reducing measures. This research also attempts to summarize the present state of understanding the effects of different parameters on the local scour. The review begins by introducing some basic concepts and terminology of scour before detailing the key relationships between parameters that are understood to influence the scour process. In this paper, a detailed review of the up-to-date work on scour reduction around bridge piers is presented including all possible aspects, such as flow field, scouring process, parameters affecting scour depth, time variation of scour. The outcome of the review revealed that further work is needed on various aspects of scour.