The objective of this study is to systematically evaluate the effects of a tissue-engineered bone complex for maxillary sinus augmentation in a canine model. Twelve sinus floor augmentation surgeries in 6 animals were performed bilaterally and randomly repaired with the following 3 groups of grafts: group A consisted of tissue-engineered osteoblasts/beta-TCP complex (n=4); group B consisted of beta-TCP alone (n=4); group C consisted of autogenous bone obtained from iliac crest as a positive control (n=4). All dogs had uneventful healings following the surgery. Sequential polychrome fluorescent labeling, maxillofacial CT, microhardness tests, as well as histological and histomorphometric analyses indicated that the tissue-engineered osteoblasts/beta-TCP complex dramatically promoted bone formation and mineralization and maximally maintained the height and volume of elevated maxillary sinus. By comparison, both control groups of beta-TCP or autologous iliac bone showed considerable resorption and replacement by fibrous or fatty tissue. We thus conclude that beta-TCP alone could barely maintain the height and volume of the elevated sinus floor, and that the transplantation of autogenous osteoblasts on beta-TCP could promote earlier bone formation and mineralization, maximally maintain height, volume and increase the compressive strength of augmented maxillary sinus. This tissue engineered bone complex might be a better alternative to autologous bone for the clinical edentulous maxillary sinus augmentation.