The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the performance of implants placed after alveolar distraction osteogenesis (ADO) or autogenous onlay bone grafting (AOBG) based on implant survival, peri-implant bone resorption, and clinical parameters.From February 2008 to July 2012, 17 patients (6 women and 11 men) with implant placement after ADO (group 1, n = 8) or AOBG (group 2, n = 9) were included in this retrospective study. In all, 37 implants were placed in group 1 and 22 implants were placed in group 2. Implant survival rate, peri-implant bone resorption, probe depth (PD), modified plaque index (mPI), and modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI) were analyzed to evaluate implant prognosis.Successful reconstruction of vertical alveolar defects and uneventful implant placement were achieved in all patients in the 2 groups. After a mean follow-up of 47.9 ± 13.3 months, implant survival was 97.3% (36 of 37) in group 1 and 95.5% (21 of 22) in group 2. No statistically relevant differences were observed. Peri-implant bone resorption was 1.29 ± 0.59 mm in group 1, which was slightly higher than 1.24 ± 0.87 mm in group 2 at last follow-up. The difference was not statistically relevant. Favorable peri-implant conditions were indicated by PD, mPI, and mSBI in the 2 groups.ADO and AOBG can be used for correction of vertical alveolar defects with a reliable implant prognosis. Comparably high implant survival rates and favorable peri-implant conditions were attained.