A fresh look at the male-specific region of the human Y chromosome.
Research paper by
Zohreh Z Jangravi, Mehdi M Alikhani, Babak B Arefnezhad, Mehdi M Sharifi Tabar, Sara S Taleahmad, Razieh R Karamzadeh, Mahdieh M Jadaliha, Seyed Ahmad SA Mousavi, Diba D Ahmadi Rastegar, Pouria P Parsamatin, Haghighat H Vakilian, Shahab S Mirshahvaladi, Marjan M Sabbaghian, Anahita A Mohseni Meybodi, Mehdi M Mirzaei, Maryam M Shahhoseini, Marzieh M Ebrahimi, Abbas A Piryaei, Ali Akbar AA Moosavi-Movahedi, Paul A PA Haynes, Ann K AK Goodchild, Mohammad Hossein MH Nasr-Esfahani, Esmaiel E Jabbari, Hossein H Baharvand, Mohammad Ali MA Sedighi Gilani, Hamid H Gourabi, Ghasem Hosseini GH Salekdeh
The Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) aims to systematically map the entire human proteome with the intent to enhance our understanding of human biology at the cellular level. This project attempts simultaneously to establish a sound basis for the development of diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic, and preventive medical applications. In Iran, current efforts focus on mapping the proteome of the human Y chromosome. The male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) is unique in many aspects and comprises 95% of the chromosome's length. The MSY continually retains its haploid state and is full of repeated sequences. It is responsible for important biological roles such as sex determination and male fertility. Here, we present the most recent update of MSY protein-encoding genes and their association with various traits and diseases including sex determination and reversal, spermatogenesis and male infertility, cancers such as prostate cancers, sex-specific effects on the brain and behavior, and graft-versus-host disease. We also present information available from RNA sequencing, protein-protein interaction, post-translational modification of MSY protein-coding genes and their implications in biological systems. An overview of Human Y chromosome Proteome Project is presented and a systematic approach is suggested to ensure that at least one of each predicted protein-coding gene's major representative proteins will be characterized in the context of its major anatomical sites of expression, its abundance, and its functional relevance in a biological and/or medical context. There are many technical and biological issues that will need to be overcome in order to accomplish the full scale mapping.