In the past decades, the influence of climate change has caused changes in the amount of rainfall in many areas which may affect the flood assessment and mitigation. This research aims to determine amount of rainfall which impacts on changes of the water levels in canals and evaluate the appropriate mitigation measures for floods in the inner Bangkok area, Bangkok Noi and Bangkok Yai districts of Bangkok. The maximum 1-day rainfall during 1997–2010 was determined under different return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 year. The MIKE 11 model was then applied to assess changes of the water levels in canals caused by design rainfall events for those return periods. The flood mitigation was also proposed by applying various pumping capacities and initial water levels, incorporating with building dykes and a floodgate. This study has found that the highest flood-risk areas are along Chak Phra and Bangkhunnon canals and the eastern part of Jakthong Canal while the lowest flood-risk area is Bangkok Yai district. Flood caused from the 10-year rainfall can be mitigated by building dykes with the height of 0.75 m [mean sea level (MSL)] and maintaining the initial water level of 0.70 m (MSL). Furthermore, it has also been found that flood caused from the 25-year rainfall can be mitigated by building the floodgate to prevent the flowing back water at Wat Yangsuttharam Canal. However, 50- and 100-year rainfalls seem to cause floods which are too large to mitigate.