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Contributions of gluconeogenesis to glucose production in the fasted state.


Healthy subjects ingested 2H2O and after 14, 22, and 42 h of fasting the enrichments of deuterium in the hydrogens bound to carbons 2, 5, and 6 of blood glucose and in body water were determined. The hydrogens bound to the carbons were isolated in formaldehyde which was converted to hexamethylenetetramine for assay. Enrichment of the deuterium bound to carbon 5 of glucose to that in water or to carbon 2 directly equals the fraction of glucose formed by gluconeogenesis. The contribution of gluconeogenesis to glucose production was 47 +/- 49% after 14 h, 67 +/- 41% after 22 h, and 93 +/- 2% after 42 h of fasting. Glycerol's conversion to glucose is included in estimates using the enrichment at carbon 5, but not carbon 6. Equilibrations with water of the hydrogens bound to carbon 3 of pyruvate that become those bound to carbon 6 of glucose and of the hydrogen at carbon 2 of glucose produced via glycogenolysis are estimated from the enrichments to be approximately 80% complete. Thus, rates of gluconeogenesis can be determined without corrections required in other tracer methodologies. After an overnight fast gluconeogenesis accounts for approximately 50% and after 42 h of fasting for almost all of glucose production in healthy subjects.