An ethnobotanical survey of Cordia rothii Roem. & Schult. (Boraginaceae) reveals it as a medicinal plant.Antimicrobial and antioxidant potential evaluation and identification of chemical constituents via GC-MS of C. rothii roots fractions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic investigation of the roots exploiting GC-MS.Extraction and fractionation of C. rothii roots furnished various fractions using solvents of varying polarity, i.e., n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant screening was performed using disk diffusion and DPPH methods, respectively. MIC of active fractions was also determined using disk diffusion method. GC-MS was used to identify constituents which may be responsible for these activities.Among various fractions from C. rothii roots, fraction KA-C showed strong antibacterial activity against 17 microorganisms tested, with MIC ranging from 250-31.25 μg/mL. Fractions KA-A, KM and KM-A exhibited significant antioxidant potential with EC50 46.875 μg/mL, while fractions KEA-PE, KM-PE and KM-M were good with EC50 93.750 μg/mL. Forty-five phytochemicals were identified in GC-MS studies including eight hydrocarbons, six free fatty acids, 11 fatty acids esters, two phenylpropanoids, four aromatics, four terpenoid quinones/hydroquinones, three triterpenes, four phytosterols, two hexose metabolites and a DNA base. Of these, 32 constituents have been reported for the first time from C. rothii, 24 from genus Cordia and 15 from Boraginaceae.Strong antibacterial and antioxidant potential of C. rothii roots may be due to the contribution of phytoconstituents identified through GC-MS studies.