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Phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant properties and antibacterial activity of Iranian medicinal herb Galanthus transcaucasicus Fomin

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to determine bioactive compounds such as flavonoid and phenolic contents by HPLC and gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometry (GC–MS) and evaluate their antioxidant and antibacterial activities in bulb, flower and shoot extracts of Galanthus transcaucasicus Fomin. The overall results indicated that shoot part contained higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids compared to the bulb and flower with respective values of 4.45and 2.67 mg/g DW. Besides, HPLC analyses showed that the gallic acid and syringic acid were the major phenolic contents in bulb, flower and shoot of G. transcaucasicus extracts. Apart from that, naringin was the main flavonoid compounds in bulb, flower and shoot. Volatile metabolites were detected by GC–MS screening that indicated 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2,3-butanediol, and acetic acid as the main compounds in the bulb, flower and shoot extracts. The results of antioxidant activity test demonstrated that shoot extracts of G. transcaucasicus exhibited higher antioxidant activities compare to bulb and flower. Furthermore, the shoot, flower and bulb extracts showed high, moderate and weak antibacterial activities against common human and food borne pathogenic bacteria, respectively. The overall results revealed that various phytochemicals and bioactive compound in different parts of G. transcaucasicus could be considered as a source of putative antioxidant and antibacterial properties that could be used as biopreservative in food and cosmetic industries.