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Design of hydro electromagnetic and piezoelectric energy harvesters for a smart water meter system☆

ABSTRACT

•We designed the hydro electromagnetic and piezoelectric energy harvesters for a smart water meter system as electronic gadget in IoT (Internet of Things).•The smart water meter system includes the water meter, the wireless data communication and the water leakage warning system.•Two energy harvesters (electromagnetic, piezoelectric) generate electrical energy by utilizing kinetic energy from original energy source (home water) and these electrical energies are used for operating the water meter and the water leakage detector, respectively.•Also, we devised non-contact hybrid energy harvesters using the magnets which don’t need any hole and are semi-permanent.•In result, the maximum output power of the electromagnetic and the piezoelectric energy harvesters was 648 mWrms at 200 Ω and 0.196 mWrms at 10 kΩ, separately.