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Proton mediated control of biochemical reactions with bioelectronic pH modulation.

ABSTRACT

In Nature, protons (H(+)) can mediate metabolic process through enzymatic reactions. Examples include glucose oxidation with glucose dehydrogenase to regulate blood glucose level, alcohol dissolution into carboxylic acid through alcohol dehydrogenase, and voltage-regulated H(+) channels activating bioluminescence in firefly and jellyfish. Artificial devices that control H(+) currents and H(+) concentration (pH) are able to actively influence biochemical processes. Here, we demonstrate a biotransducer that monitors and actively regulates pH-responsive enzymatic reactions by monitoring and controlling the flow of H(+) between PdHx contacts and solution. The present transducer records bistable pH modulation from an "enzymatic flip-flop" circuit that comprises glucose dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The transducer also controls bioluminescence from firefly luciferase by affecting solution pH.