Advanced theranostic nanomedicine is a multifunctional approach which combines the diagnosis and effective therapy of diseased tissues. Here, we investigated the preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of theranostic liposomes. As is known, liposome-quantum dot (L-QD) hybrid vesicles are promising nanoconstructs for cell imaging and liposomal-topotecan (L-TPT) enhances the efficiency of TPT by providing protection against systemic clearance and allowing extended time for it to accumulate in tumors. In the present study, hydrophobic CdSe/ZnS QD and TPT were located in the bilayer membrane and inner core of liposomes, respectively. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential (ζ) measurements and fluorescence/absorption spectroscopy were performed to determine the vesicle size, charge and spectroscopic properties of the liposomes. Moreover, drug release was studied under neutral and acidic pH conditions. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis were used to examine the cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of the TPT-loaded L-QD formulation. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was utilized to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of the formulations on HeLa cells. According to the results, the TPT-loaded L-QD hybrid has adequate physicochemical properties and is a promising multifunctional delivery vehicle which is capable of a simultaneous co-delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents.