Polymer micellar nanogels are a group of core-shell polymeric micelles with swelling properties in aqueous media. Nanogel systems have proven their potential in controlled, sustained and targetable drug delivery area with no immunological responses. This review includes a comprehensive wide range of self-assembly of polymeric nanogels as delivery systems for anticancer drugs. Nanogels are nanoparticulate drug delivery systems which are specially designed for enhanced target oriented and cellular uptake of drugs with emphasis on chemotherapeutic agents studied in this review. Self-assembling nanogels are based on natural substances or synthetic polymers including: hyaluronic acid, heparin, alginate, cyclodextrins, chondroeitin sulfate, starch, mannan, chitosan, pullulan, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), polyvynil alcohol, Pluronic F127, polyacrylic acid, poly(hydroxylethyl methacrylate), poly[2- (dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and polylactide-co-glycolide-polyethylen glycol amphiphilic di or tri block copolymer used to deliver anticancer drugs are introduced and discussed.