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DNA nanostructure-based universal microarray platform for high-efficiency multiplex bioanalysis in biofluids.

ABSTRACT

Microarrays of biomolecules have greatly promoted the development of the fields of genomics, proteomics, and clinical assays because of their remarkably parallel and high-throughput assay capability. Immobilization strategies for biomolecules on a solid support surface play a crucial role in the fabrication of high-performance biological microarrays. In this study, rationally designed DNA tetrahedra carrying three amino groups and one single-stranded DNA extension were synthesized by the self-assembly of four oligonucleotides, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography purification. We fabricated DNA tetrahedron-based microarrays by covalently coupling the DNA tetrahedron onto glass substrates. After their biorecognition capability was evaluated, DNA tetrahedron microarrays were utilized for the analysis of different types of bioactive molecules. The gap hybridization strategy, the sandwich configuration, and the engineering aptamer strategy were employed for the assay of miRNA biomarkers, protein cancer biomarkers, and small molecules, respectively. The arrays showed good capability to anchor capture biomolecules for improving biorecognition. Addressable and high-throughput analysis with improved sensitivity and specificity had been achieved. The limit of detection for let-7a miRNA, prostate specific antigen, and cocaine were 10 fM, 40 pg/mL, and 100 nM, respectively. More importantly, we demonstrated that the microarray platform worked well with clinical serum samples and showed good relativity with conventional chemical luminescent immunoassay. We have developed a novel approach for the fabrication of DNA tetrahedron-based microarrays and a universal DNA tetrahedron-based microarray platform for the detection of different types of bioactive molecules. The microarray platform shows great potential for clinical diagnosis.