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Graphene nanoprobes for real-time monitoring of isothermal nucleic acid amplification.


Isothermal amplification is an efficient way to amplify DNA with high accuracy, however, the real-time monitoring for quantification analysis mostly relied on expensive and precisely designed probes. In the present study, Graphene oxide (GO)-based nano probe was used to real-time monitor the isothermal amplification process. The interaction between GO and different DNA structures was systematically investigated, including single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), DNA 3-helix, and long rolling circle amplification (RCA) and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) products, which existed in one-, two- and three-dimensional structures. It was found that the high rigid structures exhibited much lower affinity with GO than soft ssDNA, and generally the rigidity was dependent on the length of targets and the hybridization position with probe DNA. Based on these results, we successfully monitored HCR amplification process, RCA process and the enzyme restriction of RCA products with GO nanoprobe, other application including the detection of the assembly/disassembly of DNA 3-helix structures were also performed. Compared to the widely used end-point detection methods, the GO-based sensing platform is simple, sensitive, cost-effective, and especially in a real-time monitoring mode. We believe such studies can provide comprehensive understandings and evocation on design of GO-based biosensors for broad application in various fields.