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Galileon Gravity in Light of ISW, CMB, BAO and $H_0$ data


Cosmological models with Galileon gravity are an alternative to the standard $\Lambda {\rm CDM}$ paradigm with testable predictions at the level of its self-accelerating solutions for the expansion history, as well as large-scale structure formation. Here, we place constraints on the full parameter space of these models using data from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) (including lensing), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. We pay special attention to the ISW effect for which we use the cross-spectra, $C\ell^{\rm T g}$, of CMB temperature maps and foreground galaxies from the WISE survey. The sign of $C\ell^{\rm T g}$ is set by the time evolution of the lensing potential in the redshift range of the galaxy sample: it is positive if the potential decays (like in $\Lambda {\rm CDM}$), negative if it deepens. We constrain three subsets of Galileon gravity separately known as the Cubic, Quartic and Quintic Galileons. The cubic Galileon model predicts a negative $C\ell^{\rm T g}$ and exhibits a $7.8\sigma$ tension with the data, which effectively rules it out. For the quartic and quintic models the ISW data also rule out a significant region of the parameter space but permit regions where the goodness-of-fit is comparable to $\Lambda {\rm CDM}$. The data prefers a non zero sum of the neutrino masses ($\sum m\nu\approx 0.5$eV) with $ \sim 5\sigma$ significance in these models. The best-fitting models have values of $H_0$ consistent with local determinations, thereby avoiding the tension that exists in $\Lambda {\rm CDM}$. We also identify and discuss a $\sim 2\sigma$ tensions that Galileon gravity exhibits with recent BAO measurements. Our analysis shows overall that Galileon cosmologies cannot be ruled out by current data but future lensing, BAO and ISW data hold strong potential to do so.