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Biochemical biomarkers alterations in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a respiratory disease, which can evolve into multi-organ failure (MOF), leading to death. Several biochemical alterations have been described in COVID-19 patients. To date, many biomarkers reflecting the main pathophysiological characteristics of the disease have been identified and associated with the risk of developing severe disease. Lymphopenia represents the hallmark of the disease, and it can be detected since the early stage of infection. Increased levels of several inflammatory biomarkers, including c-reactive protein, have been found in COVID-19 patients and associated with an increased risk of severe disease, which is characterised by the so-called "cytokine storm". Also, the increase of cardiac and liver dysfunction biomarkers has been associated with poor outcome. In this review, we provide an overview of the main biochemical characteristics of COVID-19 and the associated biomarkers alterations.