To date, to enhance the mechanical properties of three-dimensional scaffolds used for bone regeneration in tissue engineering, many researchers have tried in the viewpoint of structure and chemistry. Meanwhile, in the structural engineering field, the kagome structure has been known as an excellent relative strength. In this study, to enhance the mechanical properties of a synthetic polymer scaffold used for tissue engineering, we applied the three-dimensional kagome structure to a porous scaffold for bone regeneration. Prior to fabricating the biocompatible-polymer scaffold, the ideal kagome structure, which was manufactured by a 3D printer of the digital light processing (DLP) type, was compared with a grid structure, which was used as the control group, using a compressive experiment. A polycaprolactone (PCL) kagome-structure scaffold was successfully fabricated by additive manufacturing using a 3D printer with a precision extruding deposition (PED) head. To assess the physical characteristics of the fabricated PCL-kagome-structure scaffold, we analyzed its porosity, pore size, morphological structure, surface roughness, compressive stiffness, and bending mechanical properties. The results showed that, the mechanical properties of proposed kagome-structure scaffold were superior to those of a grid-structure scaffold. Moreover, Sarcoma osteogenic (Saos-2) cells were used to evaluate the characteristics of in-vitro cell proliferation. We carried out cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and DNA contents assay. Consequently, the cell proliferation of the kagome-structure scaffold was increased; this could be because the surface roughness of the kagome-structure scaffold enhances initial cell attachment.