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Impact of a Low Concentration of Dopants on the Distribution of Gap States in a Molecular Semiconductor


We investigate the distribution of valence and tail states in copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) upon the introduction of minute amounts of the p-dopant molybdenum tris[1,2-bis(trifluoromethyl)ethane-1,2-dithiolene] (Mo(tfd)3), using a combination of electron spectroscopy and carrier transport measurements. Density of gap states, conductivity, and hole-hopping activation energy are measured. We observe the progressive filling (and deactivation) of the deepest tail states by charges introduced by the dopants, as well as significant broadening of the CuPc density of states. Simulations relate this broadening to the electrostatic and structural disorder induced by the dopant in the CuPc matrix.