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Dynamic stem cell states: naive to primed pluripotency in rodents and humans.

ABSTRACT

The molecular mechanisms and signalling pathways that regulate the in vitro preservation of distinct pluripotent stem cell configurations, and their induction in somatic cells by direct reprogramming, constitute a highly exciting area of research. In this Review, we integrate recent discoveries related to isolating unique naive and primed pluripotent stem cell states with altered functional and molecular characteristics, and from different species. We provide an overview of the pathways underlying pluripotent state transitions and interconversion in vitro and in vivo. We conclude by highlighting unresolved key questions, future directions and potential novel applications of such dynamic pluripotent cell states.