Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the most popular additive manufacturing technologies for various engineering applications. FDM process has been introduced commercially in early 1990s by Stratasys Inc., USA. The quality of FDM processed parts mainly depends on careful selection of process variables. Thus, identification of the FDM process parameters that significantly affect the quality of FDM processed parts is important. In recent years, researchers have explored a number of ways to improve the mechanical properties and part quality using various experimental design techniques and concepts. This article aims to review the research carried out so far in determining and optimizing the process parameters of the FDM process. Several statistical designs of experiments and optimization techniques used for the determination of optimum process parameters have been examined. The trends for future FDM research in this area are described.