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Pyrolysis of oil palm mesocarp fiber catalyzed with steel slag-derived zeolite for bio-oil production.

ABSTRACT

The pyrolysis of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was catalyzed with a steel slag-derived zeolite (FAU-SL) in a slow-heating fixed-bed reactor at 450 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C. The catalytic pyrolysis of OPMF produced a maximum yield of 47 wt% bio-oil at 550 °C, and the crude pyrolysis vapor (CPV) of this process yielded crude pyrolysis oil with broad distribution of bulky oxygenated organic compounds. The bio-oil composition produced at 550 °C contained mainly light and stable acid-rich carbonyls at a relative abundance of 48.02% peak area and phenolic compounds at 12.03% peak area. The FAU-SL high mesoporosity and strong surface acidity caused the conversion of the bulky CPV molecules into mostly light acid-rich carbonyls and aromatics through secondary reactions. The secondary reactions mechanisms facilitated by FAU-SL reduced the distribution of the organic compounds in the bio-oil to mostly acid-rich carbonyls and aromatic in contrast to other common zeolite.