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Influence of renal impairment on aldosterone status, calcium metabolism, and vasopressin activity in outpatients with systolic heart failure

ABSTRACT

Renal dysfunction (RD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF). At present, no specific treatment for patients with RD, to prevent progression of HF, has been developed. How different hormone axes—and thereby potential treatment options—are affected by RD in HF warrants further investigations.Patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <0.45% were enrolled prospectively from an outpatient HF clinic. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (eGFR), and patients were grouped by eGFR: eGFR group I, ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2; eGFR group II, 60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2; and eGFR group III, ≤59 mL/min/1.73 m2. Multivariate linear regression models were developed to evaluate the associations between eGFR groups and hormones. A total of 149 patients participated in the study. Median age was 69 [interquartile range (IQR): 64–73] and 26% were female; LVEF was 33% (IQR: 27–39), 78% were in functional class II–III, median eGFR was 74 (54–89) mL/min/1.73 m2, and median N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide was 1303 pg/mL (IQR: 441–2740). RD was associated with increased aldosterone, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and copeptin concentrations (P < 0.05 for all) after adjustment for traditional confounders and medical treatment.RD is associated with increased concentrations of aldosterone, PTH, and copeptin in systolic HF outpatients. Our results underscore the importance of treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist in systolic HF in particular in patients with RD and suggest that vasopressin and parathyroid receptor antagonism are potential treatment options in HF patients with known RD.