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Cardiorenal syndrome.


Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) includes a broad spectrum of diseases within which both the heart and kidneys are involved, acutely or chronically. An effective classification of CRS in 2008 essentially divides CRS in two main groups, cardiorenal and renocardiac CRS, based on primum movens of disease (cardiac or renal); both cardiorenal and renocardiac CRS are then divided into acute and chronic, according to onset of disease. The fifth type of CRS integrates all cardiorenal involvement induced by systemic disease. This article addresses the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of the 5 distinct types of CRS.