Bactrocera cucurbitae is a serious global agricultural pest. Basic genomic information is lacking for this species, and this would be useful to inform methods of control, damage mitigation, and eradication efforts. Here, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated a comprehensive transcriptome for a mass-rearing sexing strain of this species. This forms a foundational genomic and transcriptomic resource that can be used to better understand the physiology and biochemistry of this insect as well as being a useful tool for population genetics.A transcriptome assembly was constructed containing 17,654 transcript isoforms derived from 10,425 unigenes. This transcriptome size is similar to reports from other Tephritid species and probably includes about 70-80% of the protein-coding genes in the genome. The dataset is publicly available in NCBI and GigaDB as a resource for researchers.Foundational knowledge on the protein-coding genes in B. cucurbitae will lead to improved resources for this species. Through comparison with a model system such as Drosophila as well as a growing number of related Tephritid transcriptomes, improved strategies can be developed to control this pest.