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The rhizosphere microbiome: Significance in rhizoremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil.


Microbial communities are an essential part of plant rhizosphere and participate in the functioning of plants, including rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminants. Rhizoremediation is a promising technology for removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons based on interactions between plants and microbiome in the rhizosphere. Root exudation in the rhizosphere provides better nutrient uptake for rhizosphere microbiome, and therefore it is considered to be one of the major factors of microbial community function in the rhizosphere that plays a key role in the enhanced PAH biodegradation. Although the importance of the rhizosphere microbiome for plant growth has been widely recognized, the interactions between microbiome and plant roots in the process of rhizosphere mediated remediation of PAH still needs attention. Most of the current researches target PAH degradation by plant or single microorganism, separately, whereas the interactions between plants and whole microbiome are overlooked and its role has been ignored. This review summarizes recent knowledge of PAH degradation in the rhizosphere in the process of plant-microbiome interactions based on emerging omics approaches such as metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics and metaproteomics. These omics approaches with combinations to bioinformatics tools provide us a better understanding in integrated activity patterns between plants and rhizosphere microbes, and insight into the biochemical and molecular modification of the meta-organisms (plant-microbiome) to maximize rhizoremediation activity. Moreover, a better understanding of the interactions could lead to the development of techniques to engineer rhizosphere microbiome for better hydrocarbon degradation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.