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Optimal Power Flow in Stand-alone DC Microgrids


Direct-current microgrids (DC-MGs) can operate in either grid-connected or stand-alone mode. In particular, stand-alone DC-MG has many distinct applications. However, the optimal power flow problem of a stand-alone DC-MG is inherently non-convex. In this paper, the optimal power flow (OPF) problem of DC-MG is investigated considering convex relaxation based on second-order cone programming (SOCP). Mild assumptions are proposed to guarantee the exactness of relaxation, which only require uniform nodal voltage upper bounds and positive network loss. Furthermore, it is revealed that the exactness of SOCP relaxation of DC-MGs does not rely on either topology or operating mode of DC-MGs, and an optimal solution must be unique if it exists. If line constraints are considered, the exactness of SOCP relaxation may not hold. In this regard, two heuristic methods are proposed to give approximate solutions. Simulations are conducted to confirm the theoretic results.