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Multi-faceted immunomodulatory and tissue-tropic clinical bacterial isolate potentiates prostate cancer immunotherapy.

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have not been effective for immunologically "cold" tumors, such as prostate cancer, which contain scarce tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. We hypothesized that select tissue-specific and immunostimulatory bacteria can potentiate these immunotherapies. Here we show that a patient-derived prostate-specific microbe, CP1, in combination with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, increases survival and decreases tumor burden in orthotopic MYC- and PTEN-mutant prostate cancer models. CP1 administered intra-urethrally specifically homes to and colonizes tumors without causing any systemic toxicities. CP1 increases immunogenic cell death of cancer cells, T cell cytotoxicity, and tumor infiltration by activated CD8 T cells, Th17 T cells, mature dendritic cells, M1 macrophages, and NK cells. CP1 also decreases intra-tumoral regulatory T cells and VEGF. Mechanistically, blocking CP1-recruited T cells from infiltrating the tumor inhibits its therapeutic efficacy. CP1 is an immunotherapeutic tool demonstrating how a tissue-specific microbe can increase tumor immunogenicity and sensitize an otherwise resistant cancer type to immunotherapy.